Biomarker assisted preclinical/early detection and intervention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may be the key to therapeutic breakthroughs. One of the presymptomatic hallmarks of AD is the accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the human brain. However, current methods to detect Aβ pathology are either invasive (lumbar puncture) or quite costly and not widely available (amyloid PET). Our prior studies show that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based hippocampal multivariate morphometry statistics (MMS) are an effective neurodegenerative biomarker for preclinical AD. Here we attempt to use MRI-MMS to make inferences regarding brain Aβ burden at the individual subject level. As MMS data has a larger dimension than the sample size, we propose a sparse coding algorithm, Patch Analysis-based Surface Correntropy-induced Sparse-coding and Max-Pooling (PASCS-MP), to generate a low-dimensional representation of hippocampal morphometry for each individual subject. Then we apply these individual representations and a binary random forest classifier to predict brain Aβ positivity for each person. We test our method in two independent cohorts, 841 subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and 260 subjects from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS). Experimental results suggest that our proposed PASCS-MP method and MMS can discriminate Aβ positivity in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) [Accuracy (ACC) = 0.89 (ADNI)] and in cognitively unimpaired (CU) individuals [ACC = 0.79 (ADNI) and ACC = 0.81 (OASIS)]. These results compare favorably relative to measures derived from traditional algorithms, including hippocampal volume and surface area, shape measures based on spherical harmonics (SPHARM) and our prior Patch Analysis-based Surface Sparse-coding and Max-Pooling (PASS-MP) methods.