High blood adiponectin has been associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia and related cognitive decline. We aimed to investigate the association between serum adiponectin level and in vivo AD pathologies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs for the data of the Korean Brain Aging Study for Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer’s Disease, an ongoing prospective cohort study that began in 2014. A total of 283 cognitively normal older adults between 55 and 90 years of age were included in community and memory clinic setting. Participants underwent comprehensive clinical assessments, measurement of serum adiponectin level, and multimodal brain imaging, including Pittsburgh compound-B positron emission tomography (PET), AV-1451 PET, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and MRI at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Serum adiponectin level was positively associated with global beta-amyloid protein (Aβ) retention and change therein over 2 years, but not with other AD neuroimaging markers including tau deposition, AD-related neurodegeneration, and white matter hyperintensities. Blood adiponectin level is associated with increased brain amyloid deposition, which suggests that adiponectin may be a potential target for therapeutic and preventive strategies against AD.