Blood-based biomarkers such as tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (phosphorylated-tau181) represent an accessible, cost-effective, and scalable approach for the in vivo detection of Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology. Plasma-pathological correlation studies are needed to validate plasma phosphorylated-tau181 as an accurate and reliable biomarker of Alzheimer’s disease neuropathologic changes. This plasma-to-autopsy correlation study included participants from the Boston University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center who had a plasma sample analyzed for phosphorylated-tau181 between 2008-2018 and donated their brain for neuropathological examination. Plasma phosphorelated-tau181 was measured with single molecule array technology. Of 103 participants, 62 (60.2%) had autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer’s disease. Average time between blood draw and death was 5.6 years (SD = 3.1 years). Multivariable analyses showed higher plasma phosphorylated-tau181 concentrations were associated with increased odds for having autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer’s disease (AUC = 0.82, OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03-1.11, p < 0.01; phosphorylated-tau standardized [z-transformed]: OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.50-5.93, p < 0.01). Higher plasma phosphorylated-tau181 levels were associated with increased odds for having a higher Braak stage (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.09, p < 0.001) and more severe phosphorylated-tau across six cortical and subcortical brain regions (ORs = 1.03-1.06, p 5 years from death. Antemortem plasma phosphorylated-tau181 concentrations were associated with Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology and accurately differentiated brain donors with and without autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer’s disease. These findings support plasma phosphorylated-tau181 as a scalable biomarker for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease.